SQL databases are a type of server-side database management systems. SQL is a generic domain-specific language designed specifically for managing information held in an on-premise relational database management system, and for enabling fast, flexible, dynamic, and interactive input and output by applications. SQL is the basis for much modern-day email, web service, and user database applications. It is also used for developing financial services applications such as credit card payment processing and real-time banking solutions. In relational database management systems, the words “SQL” and “Database” refer to the same thing (see above).
While SQL is a general-purpose programming language, it has many different subprograms that enable developers to use specific functions, stored procedures, and expressions. In simple terms, SQL is an object-oriented scripting language. For example, a SQL statement consists of two or more individual statements enclosed within one single SQL delimiter. An SQL delimiter is a character or sequence of characters that delimit a series of SQL statements.
The main purpose of SQL is to provide support for certain types of stored procedures called “PROCESS SQL” or “IBM procedural SQL”. SQL was developed by IBM as a way to standardize the way business data is managed in organizations. SQL is different from procedural programming language in the following ways: SQL statements can be executed in a single pass, SQL objects can be constructed at the beginning of the SQL statement, and there is no limit on how many times a query can be entered into the SQL server. In other words, the SQL language allows unlimited queries per CPU core.
SQL Databases store multiple rows and columns in memory at any given time. There are no limitations on the size of the database either. An SQL Server is a collection of processes each performing a specific task to maintain the performance of the entire SQL Server. SQL databases are usually specified by using SQL scripts that are pre-written SQL expressions. A stored procedure is a special SQL function whose execution is controlled by a user program.
One of the most significant differences between SQL and procedural databases is their use of entity relationships. entity relationship means how one entity references another entity. This is very similar to the concept of OO programming, where an object refers to an object. SQL is more object oriented than procedural, because it makes the use of an object more generic. OO programming is very generic and only works with certain types of data structures.
An SQL server usually stores all the relevant information in a relational model. The relational model is more flexible than the traditional query language. SQL database stores information in tables, column values, and relationships between the various entities. The stored procedures use an SQL query language to retrieve the required information from the tables.
SQL does not have a built-in mechanism for designing a large-scale object-oriented program. It has an inherent limitation called invasiveness, which results in the inability to define complex queries. SQL remains a simple and traditional database language. In other words, SQL databases are not domain-specific. However, there are several solutions available to improve the performance of the application in case of domain-specific SQL dialects.
Some of the well-known SQL dialects are: Oracle, Access, SQL Server, IBM Lotus Notes/Domino, Cold Fusion, and MS SQL Server. SQL language has been used extensively in systems development and data management for more than 25 years. Today, it forms the major part of almost every enterprise-based database. It is also one of the most widely used languages for web applications development.
SQL is used extensively for real-time financial transactions in industries like banks, health care, travel, and software development. For example, during the financial year end, an Oracle Enterprise Database can be used to build, modify, and analyze financial records. Microsoft Access and SQL-Server are the commonly used query languages for general purpose. The data types in Access are a bit different from the normal data types in SQL. It contains arrays, tables, sequences, dictionaries, and more such cool database features.
In case of Microsoft Access, it provides a more flexible data model and greater functionality for programming. SQL on the other hand is a part of the ORM, or object-oriented resource planning language. This server is designed to create, manage, and optimize databases. It can be used for database, financial transactions, and web application development. In the context of enterprise-wide web application, Microsoft Access is a part of middleware that is required by all the web servers, which help in accomplishing distributed application development.
SQL Server is one of the object-oriented database management systems, which helps in developing dynamic and interactive user interface, while keeping the cost low. This system can efficiently utilize the memory and CPU resources. The only disadvantage of SQL Server is that it is a bit costly than Oracle. However, SQL is the best choice, if you want to develop large applications requiring a high degree of concurrency, interactive ability, and fine-tuning the performance.